A worldwide phase III program, consisting of four randomized, double-blind trials in patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture, in elective hip replacement surgery patients and in elective major knee surgery patients, was conducted to compare the benefit-to-risk ratio of a subcutaneous 2.5-mg oncedaily regimen of fondaparinux, a synthetic selective factor Xa inhibitor, starting postoperatively with enoxaparin in preventing venous thromboembolism. The overall incidence of venous thromboembolism up to day 11 was reduced from 13.7% in the enoxaparin group to 6.8% in the fondaparinux group with a common odds reduction of 55.2% in favor of fondaparinux (95% confidence interval: 45.8–63.1%, p D 1017). This superior efficacy of fondaparinux was also demonstrated for proximal deep vein thrombosis with a reduction of 57.4%. The overall incidence of clinically relevant bleeding was low and did not differ between the two groups. The benefit of fondaparinux was consistent across all types of
surgery and all subgroups. (Journal of the Southern Orthopaedic Association 11(4):182–188, 2002)
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