Outcomes of Iliac Wing Fractures: A Systematic Review of the Literature - Jacquelyn P. Cruz, BA; Colin K. Cantrell, MD; Daniel J. Johnson, MD; Erik B. Gerlach, MD; and Bennet A. Butler, MD

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To review the literature on iliac wing fractures to assess outcomes of operative and nonoperative treatment. A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed. Articles reporting on iliac wing fractures without pelvic ring destabilization or intraarticular extension were included. Study information and patient data were collected, and a Methodological Index for Non-randomized Studies (MINORS) score was assigned to each article. In total, 19,363 articles were identified with 32 qualifying for inclusion. The articles included 131 patients with 133 fractures. The mean age was 43.6, and mean follow-up time was 41.9 months. Forty-eight (36%) fractures were treated operatively, and 85 (64%) were treated nonoperatively. Associated injuries included bowel injuries, other pelvic fractures, gunshot wounds, and arterial injuries. There is an absence of comparative studies between operative and nonoperative management of iliac wing fractures. Indications for operative management appear to depend on comminution, open fractures, and associated injuries. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):139–147, 2023)

Key words: iliac wing, pelvis fracture

Proximal Tibial Osteotomies: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes - Sohail Qazi, MD; Stephen Martinkovich, MD; Patrick DeMeo, MD; Brian Mosier, MD; Gary Schmidt, MD; and Jon Hammarstedt, MD

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High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a surgical procedure that can be used as a primary or as an adjunctive treatment for a variety of knee pathologies, most commonly isolated medial compartment arthrosis in a knee with varus alignment. More recently, indications for HTO have been expanded to include its use in combination with cartilage preserving techniques, to offload the effected compartment, and in conjunction with ligamentous reconstruction. HTO also has utility in delaying total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in select patients with favorable literature on future TKA outcomes. Numerous techniques for HTO have been published, however, medial opening wedge and lateral closing wedge osteotomies remain the most common. The purpose of this article is to summarize HTO patient selection and indications, surgical techniques, common complications, and review outcomes from recent literature. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):148–155, 2023)

Key words: high tibial osteotomy, varus, knee, osteoarthritis, medial opening wedge, lateral closing wedge

High Variability in Type and Indications for Bone Void Filler in Tibial Plateau Fracture Repair High Variability in Type and Indications for Bone Void Filler in Tibial Plateau Fracture Repair - Michael F. Githens, MD; Cesar Cardenas, BS; and Reza Firoozabadi, MD

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Tibial plateau fractures are a common injury treated by orthopaedic trauma surgeons. Depression of the articular surface of the tibial plateau is often an associated injury pa!ern. The methods used to address depressed tibial plateau fractures can vary, as it has yet to be determined if the type of bone void filler utilized affects the long-term functional outcomes of patients with tibial plateau fractures. A 28-question survey was created to be!er elucidate the current practices used by orthopaedic surgeons and the factors influencing the selection of bone void fillers for treatment of these injuries. The survey was distributed online to Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) members. There were 106 orthopaedic surgeons that completed the survey with a wide range of responses. The survey determined the current practice of orthopaedic surgeons varies widely when selecting bone void fillers in the treatment of depressed tibial plateau fractures. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):156–159, 2023)

Key words: bone void fillers, bone substitutes, tibial plateau fractures

How Feasible Are Digital Intraoperative Plain Radiographs in Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery? - J. Benjamin Allis, MD; Devon M. Jeffcoat, MD; and Eric E. Farrell, MD

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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of obtaining routine intraoperative plain radiographs during orthopaedic trauma surgery. Seventy consecutive orthopaedic trauma patients in which intraoperative plain films were obtained in addition to fluoroscopy were reviewed. For each patient the time it took to obtain intraoperative plain radiographs was prospectively measured, in addition to the number of images taken, and quality of image. Then relative imaging times based on fracture locations were compared and the need for revision surgery based on mal-reduction or implant mal-positioning assessed. The average time required for intraoperative plain films to be obtained and reviewed by the surgeon was 3 minutes and 45 seconds. On average, 2.8 images were taken during each surgery. Proximal images took on average 44 seconds longer than distal images to obtain (p = 0.047). There was no significant difference in imaging times for upper versus lower extremities (p = 0.448). High quality images were obtained on all patients. There were no re-operations required in this series for mal-reduction of fracture, mal-positioning of implants or infection. In this study, there were no re-operations or perioperative complications when intraoperative plain films were obtained. Intraoperative plain films are a valuable tool for complex periarticular surgery or other cases where fracture reduction or implant location may be in question. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):160–163, 2023)

Key words: intraoperative radiographs, orthopaedic trauma surgery plain radiographs

Does Surgeon Compensation Differ by Implant Choice for the Treatment of Femoral Neck Fractures? Does Surgeon Compensation Differ by Implant Choice for the Treatment of Femoral Neck Fractures? - Erik Gerlach, MD; John Carney, MD; Mark Plantz, MD; Colin K. Cantrell, MD; Jeremy Marx, MD; Peter Swiatek, MD; Rusheel Nayak, MD; and Bennet Butler, MD

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The objective of this study was to determine if physicians are compensated equally for the treatment of femoral neck fractures based on fixation method in a propensity score matched cohort of patients. The American College of Surgeons’ National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS NSQIP) database was queried for patients undergoing open reduction internal fixation (ORIF), hemiarthroplasty (HA), and total hip arthroplasty (THA) for femoral neck fractures. Exact matching was used to account for differences in patient-specific variables and underlying medical comorbidities. Total relative value units (RVU), operative time, RVU/minute, and reimbursement/minute were compared between the three procedures after exact matching to assess relative valuation. Propensity score matching resulted in a total of 4,581 patients eligible for final data analysis (1,527 patients in each treatment group). The groups were very well matched for age, sex, BMI, comorbidities, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class (p > 0.99 for all). When dividing compensation by case duration, ORIF generated the most RVUs per minute (0.31 ± 0.19 or $11.01 ± 7.02) followed by THA (0.27 ± 0.14 or $9.86 ± 5.15) and HA (0.25 ± 0.1 or $8.99 ± 3.75; p<0.001 for all). This study shows that orthopaedic surgeons are compensated the most for ORIF followed by THA and HA for fixation of femoral neck fractures. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):164–168, 2023) Key words: femoral neck fracture, relative value unit (RVU), open reduction internal fixation (ORIF), total hip arthroplasty (THA), hemiarthroplasty, trauma

Body Mass Index and American Society of Anesthesiologists Score Predict Perioperative Delays in Different Phases for Total Hip Arthroplasty - Zoe W. Hinton, MD; Sean P. Ryan, MD; Christine J. Wu, MD; Nicholas M. Hernandez, MD; Michael P. Bolognesi, MD; and Thorsten M. Seyler, MD, PhD

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Perioperative efficiency has become increasingly important with cost constraints and expanding indications for total hip arthroplasty (THA). We chose to analyze body mass index (BMI) and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, in predicting perioperative efficiency. We retrospectively reviewed the institutional database for primary THAs from July 2015 to January 2018. Patient demographics and perioperative times lines were collected. A multivariable model was utilized to evaluate BMI (< 30, ≥ 30) and ASA (< 3, ≥ 3) for all outcomes. A total of 2,934 patients were included with mean age 62.0 (12.2) years, and 1,599 (54.5%) were female. A BMI ≥ 30 was associated with prolonged operative time (p < 0.001) while an ASA ≥ 3 was predictive of post-anesthesia care unit time (p < 0.001), physical therapy hours (p < 0.001), and length of stay (p < 0.001). Both BMI (p = 0.004) and ASA (p < 0.001) were associated with skilled nursing/rehabilitation dispositions. While BMI predicts prolonged operative time, ASA predicts perioperative delays for anesthesia, nursing, and physical therapy. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):169–172, 2023)

Key words: obesity, body mass index, total hip arthroplasty, ASA score, perioperative delays

Revision Surgery and Wound Complications with Minimally Invasive Compared to Open Achilles Tendon Repair: A Retrospective Comparative Study of 116 Patients - Nicholas C. Danford, MD, MA; Christina E. Freibott, MPH; Seth C. Shoap, BA; Polzer, Hans MD; and J. Turner Vosseller, MD

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The current study analyzed revision surgery rate and wound complications of patients with Achilles tendon ruptures that received either minimally invasive repair or open standard repair. A retrospective chart review of patients that had Achilles tendon repair performed using either an open or minimally invasive technique was conducted. Primary outcomes were revision surgery rate and wound complication rate. Twenty-nine (25.0%) patients had the minimally invasive approach, while 87 (75.0%) had the open approach. On average there were 0.16 additional surgeries per patient in the open group versus none in the minimally invasive group (p = 0.003). There were 13 wound-related complications, all of which were in the open group (p = 0.06). Revision surgery rates are significantly higher for patients treated with open Achilles repair versus those treated with a minimally invasive technique. Patients may benefit from a minimally invasive as opposed to open technique. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):173–176, 2023)

Key words: Achilles, minimally invasive, wound complication, open repair

Grit Score is Predictive of Increased Risk for Opioid Prescription Refill Following Primary Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair - Anthony J. Marois, MD; Adam Achecar, BS; Frederick M. Azar, MD; David L. Bernholt, MD; Tyler J. Brolin, MD; and Thomas W. Throckmorton, MD

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The grit score is used to measure passion and perseverance for long-term goals. We hypothesized that higher grit scores would predict improved 90-day outcomes and reduced opioid requirements after primary arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR). Included were 103 patients. The median grit score was 3.9 (2.2-5.0). There was no statistically significant association between grit and morphine milligram equivalents prescribed or patient-reported pain control. Higher grit score was associated with a significant reduction in opioid prescription refill at 6 weeks, though this association was not seen at 2 or 12 weeks. The odds of requiring opioid medication 6 weeks after RCR increased 3.5 times per each 1.0 unit decrease in grit score. Patients with higher levels of grit, especially a score over 4.0, have a less difficult postoperative course after RCR. The grit score may help identify patients who are at increased risk for prolonged opioid use after RCR. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):177–181, 2023)

Key words: Grit Scale, rotator cuff repair, personality, outcomes, pain, opioid, narcotic use

Emergency Pediatric Orthopaedic Transfer Criteria: A Pilot Study - Gregory S. Mowrer, MD; Nicholas I. Pilla, MD; Scott M. Sorenson, MD; Douglas G. Armstrong, MD; and William L. Hennrikus, MD

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The purpose of this study was to define pediatric orthopaedic transfer criteria for patients coming from a smaller facility to a Level I pediatric trauma center. A 10-question phone survey was utilized for every transfer request. Fifty-eight transfer requests were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. The criteria were based on The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines and the expert opinion of the senior author. The AAP criteria included complex fractures/dislocations and bone and joint infections. The expert opinion criteria included a patient requiring admission to the hospital or a patient needing surgery. All centers requesting transfers were staffed by an on-call board-certified general orthopaedic surgeon with the ability to care for pediatric orthopaedic injuries. Of the 58 transfers, 37 (64%) did not meet transfer criteria; 21 (36%) met transfer criteria. Transfer requests came from Emergency Department (ED) physicians in 25/58 cases (43%), physician assistants in 11/58 (19%), orthopaedic a”ending physicians in 3/58 (5%), and orthopaedic residents in 3/58 (5%). The orthopaedic surgeon at the referring hospital examined the patient in only six instances (10%) prior to transfer. Of the 58 patients, 18 (31%) required a hospital admission, and 17 (29%) patients were indicated for surgery. In the current study, 64% of pediatric orthopaedic transfers did not meet criteria for an inter-facility hospital to hospital transfer and were potentially avoidable. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):182–186, 2023)

Key words: orthopaedics, pediatric, orthopaedic transfers

Rate of Tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) Fusion Using the Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) Intramedullary Nail in Developing Countries - James S. MacKenzie, MD; Krishna V. Suresh, MD; Adam Margalit, MD; Babar Shafiq, MD; Lewis Zirkle, MD; and James Ficke, MD

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Outcomes of the Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) nail have been reported for femur and tibial fractures, but its use in tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis (TTCA) is not well studied. Radiographic and clinical outcomes of TTCA using the SIGN database in patients with > 6 months of radiographic follow up were analyzed. Rates of tibiotalar (TT) fusion and subtalar (ST) fusion at final follow up were assessed by two independent reviewers. Of the 62 patients identified, use of the SIGN nail for TCCA resulted in 53% rate of fusion in the TT joint and 20% in the ST joint. Thirty-seven patients (60%) demonstrated painless weight bearing at final follow up. There were no differences in incidence of painless weight bearing between consensus fused and not fused cohorts for TT and ST joints (p > 0.05). There were five implant failures, no cases of infection, and seven cases of reoperation. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):187–192, 2023)

Key words: Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN), tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis, intramedullary nail, bony union, weightbearing

Minimally Invasive Cubital Tunnel Release Utilizing Lighted Retractors: A Study of Residents Novel to This Technique Utilizing a Cadaveric Model - Kenneth F. Taylor, MD; M. Daniel Hatch, MD; Kavita T. Vakharia, MD; and Randy M. Hauck, MD

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a minimally-invasive cubital tunnel release using lighted retractors could be performed safely and completely by residents with no prior training in this technique. Ten residents participated in the study. Postoperative dissection of the specimens was performed utilizing a detailed checklist and global rating scale to evaluate the completeness of release as well as presence of neurologic injury. Performance of residents was compared. Rho correlation analysis was used to verify validity of the assessment tools. Training year most strongly correlated with Global Rating Scale assessment values. There was a trend correlating training year with faster surgical times, and Detailed Checklist scores. Validation measurements showed strong correlations between the pass/fail grade and the Detailed Checklist and the Global Rating Scale. Complete release of the ulnar nerve in situ utilizing lighted retractors can be performed with minimal training or experience. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):193–198, 2023)

Key words: cubital tunnel, lighted retractor, global rating scale, resident education, ulnar nerve

Characterization of Opioid Prescribing Tendencies Among Orthopaedic Surgeons: A National Perspective - Kamil Amer, MD; Michael Metrione, MD; Sirjanhar Singh, BS; Jay Patel, MD; and Kathleen Beebea, MD

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There has been increasing pressure on healthcare providers to exhibit restraint when prescribing opioids for pain control. However, data that characterizes the differences between orthopaedic providers and their accompanying prescription rates is not well developed. This study accessed Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data from 2015 to collect the number of prescriptions for opioid-based medications administered by orthopaedic surgeons across the country. A total of 19,410 orthopaedic providers were identified as opioid prescribers from the 2015 Medicare Part D Database. Providers averaged an opioid prescription every 10.9 days, with 94.7% of prescribers (18,387) having wri”en more than 10 opioid prescriptions. Regionally, the Southern United States had the highest percentage of providers prescribing an opioid greater than 10 times at 96.4%. Female orthopaedic surgeons prescribed just over half the number of scripts that male surgeons did (79.4 vs. 154.2, p < 0.001). (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):199–201, 2023)

Key words: orthopaedics, opioids, pain management

Pes Planovalgus Is Associated with Increased Comorbidities and Poor Outcomes After Total Knee Arthroplasty - Allison R. Mitchell, MD; Kingsley A. Oladeji, MD; John C. Bonano, MD; Abiram Bala, MD; and Derek F. Amanatullah, MD, PhD

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Pes planovalgus affects knee biomechanics but there are no studies describing its impact on total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We aim to characterize the demographics, medical, and surgical complications of patients with pes planovalgus undergoing TKA. A Medicare database was queried using ICD-9 codes to identify 5,750 patients with and 23,000 patients without pes planovalgus who underwent TKA from 2005 to 2014. Standard descriptive statistics were used to compare medical and surgical complications at 90 days and 2 years, with alpha < 0.003 after a Bonferroni Correction. Patients with pes planovalgus had an elevated incidence of hypertension (80%, p < 0.001), pulmonary disease (31%, p < 0.001), hypothyroidism (28%, p < 0.001), diabetes (30%, p < 0.001), vascular disease (20%, p < 0.001), obesity (26%, p < 0.001), and depression (23%, p < 0.001). They also had increased odds of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (odds ratio [OR] 1.3, p < 0.001), stiffness (OR 1.3, p < 0.003) and revision (OR 1.59, p < 0.003) at 90 days. At 2 years, odds of stiffness had increased (OR 1.34, p < 0.001) with similar rates of revision and medical complications. Pes planovaglus is associated with increased medical comorbidities and this patient population may be at an increased risk for postoperative stiffness, early revisions, and DVT after TKA. Arthroplasty surgeons should be conscious of these risks when considering TKA in a patient with pes planovalgus and counsel them appropriately. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):202–206, 2023)

Key words: total knee replacement (TKA), pes planovalgus, postoperative complications, revision, stiffness

Observation Versus Cast Treatment of Toddler’s Fracture: A Prospective Pilot Study - Lauren Hyer, MD; Christopher Bray, MD; Edward Bray, MD; Stephanie Tanner, MS; Rebecca Snider, BS; and Michael Beckish, MD

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“Toddler’s fractures” are common in the pediatric population. Traditional treatment recommends casting these fractures, although with their inherent stability, may be unnecessary. This study evaluated if toddler’s fractures can be treated with observation alone as opposed to casts. A prospective pilot study was performed with randomization and observational arms. Children were placed in short casts or observed without immobilization. A 21-day log was given to families to record walking. Follow up with radiographs occurred at 3 and 12 weeks. Twenty-one patients enrolled, three randomized and 18 chose their treatment. Thirteen patients were casted, and eight went without immobilization. Ambulation time was similar between groups (p = 0.260). Three without immobilization returned early but none converted to cast. All fractures healed uneventfully. There were no cast complications. Toddler’s fractures treated with or without cast immobilization appears to be safe and effective but should be a shared decision between physician and parents. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(3):207–211, 2023)

Key words: toddler’s fracture, immobilization, time to ambulation

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